When Caroline Harrison became First Lady most of the women's magazines of the day were touting the joys of household management. Electrical appliances were being introduced heralding a "servantless kitchen". Part of the hype nationally was an effort to make housework seem more attractive as a result of a change in immigration patterns. There were fewer Irish and Swedish young women willingly to take jobs in people's homes. In response to the shortage of domestic workers was the message conveyed in the magazines that housework should satisfy any woman, no matter how well educated. There was evidence that this view of domesticity was gaining credence as a survey taken of Vassar College graduates found that only one in four women planned to work or travel.